collection1b

collection1b

June 28, 2015

The Easy Writers


 



[Posted on L&P on May 13, 2010.]
        The Esterbrook Steel Pen Mfg. Co.’s US trademark no. 8,790 for “Metallic Pens”, issued on Oct 25, 1881, and used since 1874, was for the name “Easy Writer” and the number “130”.  Le Roy W. Fairchild’s US trademark no. 9,536 for “Fountain-Pens”, issued on July 11, 1882, and used since 1882, showed an image of a fountain pen with the name “Ready Writer” stamped on it, a name taken from Psalm 45:1.  Also see the earlier fountain pens in US patent no. 8,977 from 1852, and UK patent no. 2,678 from 1859, both with the name “Ready Writer” on the pens.  And although trademark no. 9,536 was the first for a fountain pen, it didn’t appear until 1882, when the new fountain pen business was just starting to take off, and become competitive and a going concern.  Modern advertizing was also in its infancy, and they were still trying to figure out mass marketing, and just how it all should be done, and how to be modern.  Later, in the early 1900s, Ormiston & Glass also had a stylograph called the “Ready Writer”.  And Charles E. Browning’s US trademark no. 45,856 for “Fountain-Pens”, issued on Aug 29, 1905, but used since June 28, 1892, was for the name “Rapid Writer”.  But Benjamin Lawrence’s US trademark no. 9,509 for “Steel Pens”, issued on July 4, 1882, and used since May 1, 1882, was for the name “Expeditious Writer”, which was not quite as catchy as the other names.  It sounds a bit stuffy, and a bit of a reach.




George Kovalenko.

.
 

June 25, 2015

The Gravity Fillers


 



[Posted on L&P on July 22, 2006 and July 7, 2007.]
        The first gravity-filler fountain pen, US patent no. 630,526, is a jointless pen from William W. Stewart, the prolific inventor behind Mabie, Todd, & Bard.  This pen is said to be self-filling, but still requires an external device for filling, a custom-made eyedropper that fits right over the whole nib and section.  And Harold N. Carpenter’s “Fountain-Pen Filler”, US patent no. 887,919, is the first inverted-pen, gravity-filler ink bottle, a device for filling any eyedropper pen directly from the ink bottle by means of a cap with a pneumatic rubber pump.  The bottle was put into production by S. S. Stafford, and it could have been used to fill the pen in patent no. 630,526.  Also see Carpenter’s US patent nos. 1,082,711, 1,125,470, 1,152,601, and 1,152,602.
        A couple of much later gravity-filler pens that filled from their own proprietary ink bottles are George Osterhout’s US patent no. 2,001,263, and the one by the Japanese pen company Namiki, also known as Pilot, US patent no. 2,144,296.  The Osterhout patent included the ink bottle, and US patent no. 2,132,313 is for the proprietary Pilot ink bottle with its distinctive
urn, or cardioid shape.  The words “capillarity” and “gravity” do not appear in the US patent for the Pilot filling bottle.  However, both words do appear in the US patent for the Pilot fountain pen, which was meant to be filled from this bottle.  Throughout the specification, the phrase “capillarity and gravity” is used over and over, as in this statement “The ink-ducts serve as passages for ink, which is sucked from the bottle into the casing, under the action of capillarity and gravity”, but near the end, the specification makes a statement that clearly separates the two words, saying that “much importance should be placed on gravity”.  One can never completely discount capillarity, but I think the pen is more properly called a gravity filler.  And here are a couple of Pilot ads showing the pen being filled from different-shaped bottles, ad 1, and ad 2.
        John Chapman wrote, “These two look a lot like the filling system in the Pelikan Level 5 pen”, and he wondered what patent the Level 5 used.  But the Level 5 fills under pressure, and fills in any position.  It does not have to be inverted to be filled by gravity.  This is the US patent for the Level 5 pen and ink bottle, 5,888,008, and this is the German patent for the bottle, DE4,438,590, and the filling valve, DE4,340,760.
    I like these two quotes from the specifications for the two pens.  The Osterhout patent states, “The present invention . . . has for an object to provide an improved [fountain] pen that functions solely by the action of natural laws”.  And the Namiki patent states, “In brief, in known fountain-

pens, the idea has prevailed that capillarity should be regarded as of importance, whereas in this invention the idea is based on the fact that much importance should be attached to gravity”.  Who would have thought that one could patent gravity, just like Wirt with “his” capillarity?!  Maybe someone should have given Newton the heads-up, but then the apple might have hit him right in the eye instead of on the top of his head.

George Kovalenko.

.
 

June 22, 2015

The Writing Machine


, and the type-writer.
 




[Posted on L&P, June 17, July 17, 2007, June 1, 2010, and Oct 21, 2013.]
        The first US patent for a typewriter, or rather an early precursor to the so-called typewriting machine, US patent no. X5,581, is one of my favorite patent images, but it looks more like an early precursor to a pinball machine.  It’s one of the “First Series” of patents from before the fire at the Patent Office in 1836.  After the fire, the USPTO started numbering the new patents from number 1 all over again to create the number sequence we are all familiar with today, but it’s really the “Second Series” of patents.  Subsequently they placed an “X” prefix before the numbers in the “First Series” in order to distinguish them from the “Second Series”.  The Burt image is nothing at all like the “writing with types” machines in the Sholes-Glidden-Soule US patent nos. 79,265 and 79,868.  I especially like the patents in the mid-1800’s for the early type-writing machines that have keyboards with keys similar to those on Schroeder’s toy piano in the Peanuts cartoons, ones that have quaint names such as “Le Clavier Imprimeur”, or “Cembalo Scrivano”.  They also show the origin of the words “key” and “keyboard” as now applied to the set of typing “keys”, since they used to resemble the keys of a small piano.
        Typewriters are sometimes referred to as “writing machines” in the early patents, but they’re really just typing machines.  The former machine is said to form the letters by “writing or printing on the paper”, and the latter is said to be a machine “designed to write with types instead of a pen”.  And as Truman Capote famously said, “That’s not writing.  That’s typing”.  My version is, “It isn’t handwriting.  It’s fingertip-typing”.
        So you can understand my pen researcher’s joy when, finally! a so-called “writing machine” that’s actually a writing machine, and not just another typing machine, showed up, US patent no. 972,920.  It also gives new meaning to the term “machine calligraphy”.  “When mechanically operated being styled a ‘Writeograph’ and when electrically operated a ‘Teleaugraph’. . . . The primary object of my invention is to provide a machine wherein positive and reliable means [a series of cam discs] are employed for accurately guiding a pen [to] reproduce hand writing”.  I’m going to use a much-cleaned-up version of one of the patent illustrations, minus the seventy-or-so part numbers, as the frontispiece in the forthcoming volume one of my patent book.  It’s a picture of a hand in a box that looks like “Thing”, the hand in The Addams Family cartoon and television show.  There’s even a coiled-up snake in there to keep “Thing” company.  Now, at last, you can finally see what’s inside the box, and just exactly what the hand is doing inside there.  It writes!
        Also see The Scientific American, Nov 2, 1901, p.283, for an article about a cam-driven machine for writing initials, perhaps a precursor to US patent no. 972,920.  This unpatented machine was designed and created by Henry T. Harra.  And lastly, John T. Underwood’s US trademark no. 16,108 for “Ribbons For Type-Writing Machines” is for a label with stars and intersecting lines.  Alas, the mighty John Underwood Ink Co. survived into the 20th century by becoming a lowly type-writer manufacturer.  It isn’t writing, it’s typing.


George Kovalenko.

.
 

June 19, 2015

The Word ‘Fountpen’


 

 
Book. & Stat., June 1909, pp.8-9.


[Posted on L&P on Dec 7, 13, & 21, 2011, and rewritten on Dec 9, 2014, and May 7, 2015.]
        I always liked the neologism “fountpen”, which I thought had originated with the Canadian and British offices of the Mabie Todd Co. sometime in 1909 to advertize their “Swan” pens using such ad-lines as “Fountpen Points for Canadian Stationers”, and “Talk Fountpens, Sell Fountpens, Show Fountpens”.  The word was used by them throughout the First World War and into the 1920s, even though it never caught on generally.  Here’s another ad in The American Stationer for their “Longshort” stylo from
Feb 11, 1911, p.18, which also mentions “Swan” fountpens.  And here’s a window display of Swan “Fountpens” in a photo of a Los Angeles stationery store in Am. Stat., Nov 29, 1913, p.14But Mabie Todd was not the only one to use the term “Fountpen”.  Here’s a later ad for a Salz Bros “Pen and Pencil Combination” in Am. Stat., May 17, 1919, p.29, well before the combo craze in the late 1920s and early 30s.  It’s there on the side of the Salz combo, but it’s probably just shortened to fit into the barrel imprint.  And here’s another early combo, this time the Founcil combo from 1908, probably an eyedropper-filled combo.  And even though there is no “t” in the spelling of the name, the “t” is not exactly silent.  It’s implied, and it’s partially there in the pronunciation of the name, sort of like “Fountpen”.  It was also used in 1913 by Charles J. Dale, a jeweler in Oswego, N. Y., for his own-brand fountain pen, “Dale’s Dollar Fount-Pen”, and in some 1924 ads in Popular Mechanics by J. C. Ullrich Co. to advertize their “Independent” stylograph, which was said to have “All the best features of a fountpen”.
        But as it turns out, there is a much earlier use of the word than the one by Mabie Todd.  The “Auto-Safety Fount Pen” was made by the Safety Fount Pen Co. of Pittsburg, Penn.  It appears in their ads from 1904, and in the list of fountain pen manufacturers in Tools of Business, an Encyclopedia of Office Equipment and Labor Saving Devices from 1905.  The ads say that it is “Non-Rolling”, and it promotes “No Swearing” because it “Won’t Roll Off The Desk”.  It must have been in completion with Conklin’s Crescent Filler because it also borrowed the ad-line from the Conklin ad that appeared in the January 1904 issue of Century Magazine, the one with Twain’s endorsement from his letter dated Oct 4, 1903.  It reads in part, “I prefer it because it is a profanity saver; it cannot roll off the desk.  Very truly yours, S. L. Clemens”.
        And lastly, here’s a curious definition by Fowler in his A Dictionary of Modern English Usage from 1926,Fount is the poetical & rhetorical form of fountain; to use it in ordinary contexts, e.g., in fount-pen for fountain-pen, is a
vulgarization”.
 
George Kovalenko.

.
 

June 16, 2015

Scientific American magazine


Here are the links for the OCR, text-only volumes of The Scientific American from Hathi Trust.  To view the volumes in full-imagery mode, however, you’ll need to add the suffix ;view=1up;seq=1 to the ends the URLs. 

Here’s the list of volumes from 1846 to 1869 in the “Making Of America” site from Cornell. 

Here’s a “Snippet” and “No Preview” list from Google Books.  And here’s another “Snippet” and “No Preview” list also from Google Books.

There are lots of extras and duplicates of volumes from various other university libraries, but I have included only one copy of each volume.  Where there are no copies at all in Hathi, I have substituted the copy from the “Making Of America” site from the Cornell University Library.  Their copies go up to 1869 only, so a few later volumes after 1870 are still missing in Hathi.

Old Series
v.1 1845-46  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31822028474377 (No preview)
v.2 1846-47  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062998932;view=1up;seq=1
v.3 1847-48  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31158007775348;view=1up;seq=1
v.4 1848-49  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951001919664d;view=1up;seq=1
v.5 1849-50  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510013896847;view=1up;seq=1
v.6 1850-51  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31158007775322;view=1up;seq=1
v.7 1851-52  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31158006604465;view=1up;seq=1
v.8 1852-53  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.l0051153724;view=1up;seq=1
v.9 1853-54  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31158007775314;view=1up;seq=1
v.10 1854-55  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html
v.11 1855-56  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999014;view=1up;seq=1
v.12 1856-57  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html
v.13 1857-58  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999038;view=1up;seq=1
v.14 1859  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html

New Series
v.1 1859  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html 

v.1 1859  https://books.google.ca/books?id=90hGAQAAIAAJ
v.2 1860  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538228;view=1up;seq=1
v.3 1860  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999076;view=1up;seq=1
v.4 1861  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999083;view=1up;seq=1
v.5 1861  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999090;view=1up;seq=1
v.6 1862  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html
v.7 1862  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html
v.8 1863  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999113;view=1up;seq=1
v.9 1863  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999120;view=1up;seq=1
v.10 1864  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999137;view=1up;seq=1
v.11 1864  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html
v.12 1865  http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/s/scia/index.html
v.13 1865  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999151;view=1up;seq=1
v.14 1866  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999168;view=1up;seq=1
v.15 1866  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001518006;view=1up;seq=1
v.16 1867  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999182;view=1up;seq=1
v.17 1867  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400811q;view=1up;seq=1
v.18 1868  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400812o;view=1up;seq=1
v.19 1868  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400813m;view=1up;seq=1
v.20 1869  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400814k;view=1up;seq=1
v.21 1869  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400815i;view=1up;seq=1
v.22 1870  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400816g;view=1up;seq=1
v.23 1870  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999250;view=1up;seq=1
v.24 1871  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999267;view=1up;seq=1
v.25 1871  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999274;view=1up;seq=1
v.26 1872  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924096376227;view=1up;seq=1
v.27 1872  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999298;view=1up;seq=1
v.28 1873  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999304;view=1up;seq=1
v.29 1873  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999311;view=1up;seq=1
v.30 1874  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538350;view=1up;seq=1
v.31 1874  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538368;view=1up;seq=1
v.32 1875  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538376;view=1up;seq=1
v.33 1875  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999359;view=1up;seq=1
v.34 1876  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538392;view=1up;seq=1
v.35 1876  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999373;view=1up;seq=1
v.36 1877  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538400;view=1up;seq=1
v.37 1877  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999397;view=1up;seq=1
v.38-39 1878  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999403;view=1up;seq=1
v.39 1878  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538434;view=1up;seq=1
v.40 1879  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538442;view=1up;seq=1
v.41 1879  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538459;view=1up;seq=1
v.42 1880  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999434;view=1up;seq=1
v.43 1880  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538475;view=1up;seq=1
v.44-45 1881  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999458;view=1up;seq=1
v.45 1881  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538491;view=1up;seq=1

v.46 1882  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999465;view=1up;seq=1
v.47 1882  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538509;view=1up;seq=1
v.48 1883  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538517;view=1up;seq=1
v.49 1883  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999496;view=1up;seq=1
v.50-v.51  1884 missing
v.52 1885  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538566;view=1up;seq=1
v.53 1885  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538574;view=1up;seq=1
v.54 1886  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538525;view=1up;seq=1
v.55 1886  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538582;view=1up;seq=1
v.56 1887  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999557;view=1up;seq=1
v.57 1887  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999564;view=1up;seq=1
v.58 1888  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999571;view=1up;seq=1
v.59 1888  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024538624;view=1up;seq=1
v.60 1889  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546692;view=1up;seq=1
v.61 1889  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510013897568;view=1up;seq=1
v.62 1890  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999625;view=1up;seq=1
v.62-63 1890  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20130076;view=1up;seq=1
v.64 1891  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510013897592;view=1up;seq=1
v.65 1891  missing
v.66 1892  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546866;view=1up;seq=1
v.67 1892  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999687;view=1up;seq=1
v.68 1893  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546841;view=1up;seq=1
v.69 1893  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546833;view=1up;seq=1
v.70-71 1894  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999717;view=1up;seq=1
v.72 1895  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546809;view=1up;seq=1
v.72-73 1895  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.15625386;view=1up;seq=1
v.74 1896  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999748;view=1up;seq=1
v.75 1896  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546775;view=1up;seq=1
v.76 1897  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999762;view=1up;seq=1
v.77 1897  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999779;view=1up;seq=1
v.78 1898  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015084561375;view=1up;seq=1
v.79 1898  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546759;view=1up;seq=1
v.80 1899  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546742;view=1up;seq=1
v.81 1899  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015024546734;view=1up;seq=1
v.82 1900  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510013897762;view=1up;seq=1
v.83 1900  missing
v.84 1901  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015084561359;view=1up;seq=1
v.85 1901  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999854;view=1up;seq=1
v.86 1902  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400818c;view=1up;seq=1
v.87 1902  missing
v.88 1903  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999885;view=1up;seq=1
v.89 1903  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999892;view=1up;seq=1
v.90 1904  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999908;view=1up;seq=1
v.91 1904  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999915;view=1up;seq=1
v.92 1905  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999922;view=1up;seq=1
v.93 1905  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999939;view=1up;seq=1
v.94 1906  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999946;view=1up;seq=1
v.95 1906  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999953;view=1up;seq=1
v.96 1907  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400826d;view=1up;seq=1
v.97 1907  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00400827b;view=1up;seq=1
v.98 1908  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d004008289;view=1up;seq=1
v.99 1908  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000062999991;view=1up;seq=1
v.100 1909  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000063000009;view=1up;seq=1
v.101 1909  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000063000016;view=1up;seq=1
v.102 1910  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000063000023;view=1up;seq=1
v.103 1910  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000063000030;view=1up;seq=1
v.104 1911  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000063000047;view=1up;seq=1


George Kovalenko.

.
 

June 13, 2015

The Parker Duofold Numbers



, from the 1927-29 catalogues.

[Posted on L&P on Nov 3, 4, 2007, and revised in 2015.]


        Here are the Parker Duofold catalogue numbers that I mentioned before, the ones that Derek Lepper posted on L&P in 2007.  These turned out to be merely the color designations in the 1927-
to-1929 catalogues.  When I re-arranged the list by placing it in numerical order, in groups of four lines, certain patterns emerged.  The ones place stands for the size of the pen or pencil, and the higher the digit, the bigger the pen or pencil, and it also stands for the clip-or-ring-top appointments.  But the tens and hundreds places seem to stand for the color groups.  The first four numbers stand for the red-with-black-tips color scheme, and the rest of the quatrains, in their growing tens and hundreds places, seem to correspond to the chronological or sequential appearance of the various models of pens and pencils in their various colors, first the red, then the black, and then the colorful celluloids.  There may be some exceptions to the correct order, but it seems okay.  Also, two numbers were left out, 131 and 631, so I re-inserted them.
        I had seen similar lists of numbers for Duofolds, Black and Golds, Pastels, Moires, Challengers, and Vacumatics, but Derek’s list added the True Blue and some depression pen numbers as well, which I have left out.  I didn’t know what to make of these numbers at first because many of them repeated, or duplicated the numbers in both model and parts number lists.  It was probably just a color numbering scheme used in the catalogues sent out to the dealers.  This catalogue numbering scheme constitutes yet another numbering scheme that is not compatible with the other two, which at first seemed to be continuous and compatible with one another.  Where the early model numbers left off, the later repair parts numbers seemed to pick up and carry on, but they were inevitably irreconcilable.  The problem with this Grand Unification Theory is this crossover period of the Duofolds and the Vacs and the depression pens, which had their own, separate numbering schemes.  Here are just the Duofold numbers.



Duofold Numbers



1  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, clip
2  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands with ring-top
3  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Jr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
5  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Jr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands
7  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Sr., flat top pen, 2 cap bands
9  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Sr., flat top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands

11  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, clip
12  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, ring-top
13  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Jr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
15  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Jr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands
17  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Sr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
19  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Sr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands

37  Flashing Black and Gold over-sized pen, lined, #7X nib

71  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Lady, pencil, clip
72  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Lady, pencil, ring-top
73  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Jr., pencil
77  Duofold Black-Tipped Lacquer Red, Big Bro., pencil

81  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Lady, pencil, clip
82  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Lady, pencil, ring-top
83  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Jr., pencil
87  Duofold Flashing Black and Gold, Big Bro., pencil

101  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, clip
102  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, ring-top
103  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Jr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
105  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Jr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands
107  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Sr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
109  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Sr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands

111  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, clip
112  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, ring-top
113  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Jr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
115  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Jr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands
117  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Sr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
119  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Sr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands

121  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, clip
122  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, ring-top
123  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Jr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
125  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Jr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands
127  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Sr., flat-top pen, 2 cap bands
129  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Sr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands

131  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, clip
132  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony Lady, flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands, ring-top
133  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony Jr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands
137  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony Sr., flat-top pen, De Luxe, 3 cap bands

171  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Lady, pencil, clip
172  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Lady, pencil, ring-top
173  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Jr., pencil
177  Duofold Black-Tipped Green Jade, Big Bro., pencil

181  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Lady, pencil, clip
182  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Lady, pencil, ring-top
183  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Jr., pencil
187  Duofold Black-Tipped Lapis Lazuli, Big Bro. pencil

191  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Lady, pencil, clip
192  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Lady, pencil, ring-top
193  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Jr., pencil
197  Duofold Black-Tipped Mandarin Yellow, Big Bro., pencil

631  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony, Lady, pencil, clip
632  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony, Lady, pencil with ring-top
633  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony, Jr., pencil
637  Duofold Moderne Pearl & Ebony, Big Bro., pencil


And later, in the early ’30s, there would also be
the Moderne Green & Pearls,
the Burgundy & Blacks,
the Sea Green Pearls,
and the Vest Pocket pens and pencils.
 

George Kovalenko.


.
 

Addendum, posted on FPN Jan 10, 2005, on L&P Aug 3, 2005, and added on Jan 16, 2016.
    Parker Duofold Nib Codes
        Parker had an arcane system of letter codes on their Duofold nibs in the 20s and early 30s, but no one seems to have cracked that code, yet, not even Michael Fultz, and Daniel Zazove, and all the other Parker experts.
        At the height of the Duofold’s popularity, Parker probably couldn’t keep up with the demand for parts produced by their factory, so they had to out-source their nib production.  This is just a theory, but Parker must have had to have had a way to distinguish between Duofold nibs made by Parker in Janesville and those made in their foreign factories, and by secondary suppliers.  Here’s my list of guesses about this broken English.

P = stands for Parker-made nibs
P-C = Parker Canada (or Pfanstiehl Chemical ?)
C = Canada, the factory in Toronto
N = the factory in Newhaven, England
D = the nibs made in Denmark
B = a nibmaker such as Barrett, or Beyer & Hayes (?)
Z = maybe a supplier located in Zanesville, Ohio, in the industrial triangle (?)
Y = and this one stumps me, maybe a company with a name like Yale, or a factory or supplier in New York, since “N” was already taken (?)
     Alternatively, the nib letters may refer to different types of nib tipping alloys on the different batches of Duofold nibs.  John Mottishaw in his online article “Where’s The Iridium?” mentions at least 4 or 5 different nib tipping alloys tried out by Parker.

        This is all conjecture, you understand.  Maybe it’s only coincidence.  I’m just setting the cat amongst the pidgins.

  

June 09, 2015

Parker Model Numbers, 2


, the second series.

[Posted on L&P on Oct 19, and 22, 2006, Sept 29, 2007, and expanded and revised in 2015.]
        My first thread on L&P,
“Vintage Pen Repair Tools”, was about a box of pen repair shop tools and parts that I found in 1993.  I wrote mostly about the pen repair tools, but I also mentioned that there were “long pen boxes and envelopes full of mint repair parts...straight from the various pen company repair-part departments, some in little envelopes with the part numbers written on them”.  There are surviving Parker Repair Parts Price Lists from 1937, 1939, 1942, 1944, 1948, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1969, and 1980, but only the ones from 1944 and on use the same type of part numbers.
        These Parker part numbers usually take the form xxx-xxx, with two three-digit numbers separated by a dash.  I figured out that the first three digits stand for the pen model, and the second three digits stand for the type of part.  Hence, the number 295-165 stands for the Parker 51 nib, and 760-270 stands for the Parker 45 nib unit assembly.  The earliest model number I could find on my envelopes was 221, which was for a Sub-Deb Vac clip, and later models had numbers such as 411 for the Junior Vac, and 343, 601, and 626, all for the Parker 51, 410 for the Televisor and the Junior Vac, 576 for the Parker 21 pencil, 607 and 615 for the Parker 21 pen, 620 for the Jotter ballpoint, 626 for the Parker Super 21, 653 for Parker 61, 673 for the Parker 41, 809 for 

the Eversharp Super E, and 840 for the Parker 19.
        In the early, pre-Duofold era, the model numbers seemed to refer to one model, but with many styles allowed within that number, and in the later period, there were many style numbers involved in the make-up of one model.  It wasn’t just a model number, but was also a style, and finish number, so in some earlier versions of these lists I had taken to calling them “Model And Style Numbers”.  Some early models were available as eyedroppers and self fillers, in long and short versions, with turban top and safety caps, and in the baby size, and the filling system, size of nib, and type of cap didn’t matter to the number.  And the later models were sometimes put together using some minor parts from several existing earlier models as well as some major parts from a new number.  You’ll see what I mean when you look at the price lists.


        I still need to fill in the numbers for the pens from the late 1920s and 30s, but I’ll take anything.  It all helps for cross-referencing purposes.  For instance, the 1958 and 1960 repair parts manuals still have some parts for Vacs listed because they were re-used on the early models of the 51s.  And many parts, such as bushing rings and cap-jewel screws, etc., were re-used on many different models, so it’s as if some pen parts were cross-pollinated.  There is no single number for most of the later pens.  I don’t know whether the model numbers lasted until the Parker 75, and I’m curious to find out when the numbering system petered out, and when it was discontinued.  By the time of the 1980 parts price list, the part numbers had been transformed into double-hyphenated, 7-digit numbers that started with a single digit followed by two triplets, like so, x-xxx-xxx.
        The 1948 parts price list is the first one to partially bridge the gap between the early pens and the later pens through the Duofolds and the Vacumatics.  It was only because these pens were still being used by some diehards that Parker had to continue to make parts with which to service and repair them.  Here’s a picture of General MacArthur
still using a Duofold in 1945, his wife’s Red Duofold Junior.  The 1948 list also makes it explicit that the replacement part numbers for the Duofold nibs and feeds are actually the part numbers for the Senior Vac Maxima arrow nibs and comb feeds, minus the tube in the Vac feed assemblies.
        But where were the model numbers for the Duofolds, Patricians,
Pastels, Moires, Vacumatics, Challengers, and the various depression pens?  Perhaps there were none.  There are three lists from this free-for-all period of the 1920s and 1930s that were pointed out to me by three separate pen researchers.  John Danza brought to my attention a group of model numbers for #20 and #23 Jack Knife Safety Button-Filler and Eyedropper pens and matching mechanical pencils.  The numbers are from the 1921 Parker catalogue, and they are a sparse, sporadic series of about 40 numbers scattered between 101 and 516 for the different types of gold, or silver, or plated overlays.  But the numbers don’t seem to fit in to any kind of scheme but their own.  Derek Lepper posted a list of Parker Duofold catalogue numbers, but these were just the color designations from the 1927-29 catalogues.  I have seen similar lists of numbers for Duofolds, Challengers, and Vacumatics, but Derek’s list adds the True Blue and Depression pen numbers as well.  It must be some sort of separate numbering scheme used in the wholesale catalogues sent out to the dealers.  This catalogue numbering system constitutes yet another numbering scheme from this period that is not compatible with the other two major numbering schemes, which still seem to me like they could be continuous and compatible with one another.  Where the early model numbers leave off, the later parts numbers seem to pick up and carry on.  Well, it seemed so until I saw the two lists that I got from Daniel Zazove, a Parker Pen Co. Model Identification” list for Duofolds, Vacumatics, Sacless Duofolds, and Challengers, and a Vacumatics list from 1944.  Both of these lists start again at number 1, for both the Duofolds and the Vacs.  They reuse the numbers up to 100, and then go past that sequence into the 400s, plus a few more numbers in the 1100s and the 1300s.  They were Parker’s numbering systems to keep the different styles and colors straight for their dealers, but they were not part of a larger model numbering scheme, and they were not compatible with the other two schemes.
        So instead I dug further into the repair lists.  At first it seemed that the second series started with some repetitions of a few of the two-digit numbers in the first series.  But if you add the number “1” in front of them, they fit into the 100s in the second scheme almost perfectly, and seem to partially bridge the gap.  I say “almost” because there’s only one conflict, between the numbers 88 and 188, so the number “1” can’t be added in front.
        The problem with a Grand Unification Theory is this crossover period of the Duofolds and the Vacs and the depression pens.  I haven’t found any suitable, or compatible numbers with which to fill in this gap, and I can safely say the two major numbering schemes are not compatible and will never be reconciled.  Since I first started the list, I have divided it permanently into two parts, the First Series, and the Second Series.  The second series could also be called The Modern Numbers.  This is an attempt to see whether I can put together a complete list of the numbers from 1 to 1000, a much expanded and revised version of the second series of Parker model numbers.  This is just an interim list, and I have made many changes to it already, so remember that it might already be outdated and full of mistakes.  Here is the second series.


The Second Series.

 01  Vacumatic Juniorette, lock-type filler, GF & chrome, & Lady Slender Vac, section & feed
 03  Vacumatic Junior, lock-type filler, metal plunger
 04  Vacumatic Junior Standard, lock-type filler, metal plunger, GF or chrome
 05  Vacumatic Debutante, chrome blind cap band
 09  Lady Slender Vacumatic, Juniorette, lock type, lock-type filler, GF or chrome clip
 10  Lady Duofold streamlined pen, GF trim
 30  Duofold Junior streamlined pen, GF trim
 42  Vacumatic Senior Maxima, Junior, Juniorette, clip screw & bushing, GF blind cap band
 45  Vacumatic Senior Maxima, Junior, chrome blind cap band
 51  Vacumatic Major & Parker 51 clip jewel screw
 70  Duofold Senior streamlined pen, GF trim
 74  Vacumatic Major, Junior, Juniorette, Lady, Challenger, 51, lock-type filler, metal plunger
 75  Vacumatic Juniorette, GF blind cap band
 84  Vacumatic Senior Maxima pen, GF trim, lock-type filler, metal plunger
 85  Vacumatic Senior Maxima pen, chrome trim, lock-type filler, & Vacumatic Junior blind cap
 88  Vacumatic Junior with GF trim, lock-type filler, metal plunger
125  Lady Royal Challenger, Lady Deluxe Challenger, clip screw
182  Lady Royal Challenger, blind cap screw
183  Lady Royal Challenger, GF blind cap band
188  Lady Deluxe Challenger pen, GF and chrome trim
190  Junior Deluxe Challenger pen, GF and chrome trim
195  Imperial Vacumatic Major, Major Vac, Sacless Duofold, section, blind cap, clip
196  Vacumatic Major pen with GF trim, cap, clip, feed & tube assembly
197  Vacumatic Senior Maxima pen with GF trim, cap, clip, feed & tube assembly
198  Imperial Vacumatic Major pen with chrome trim, cap, clip
199  Vacumatic Major pen with chrome trim, cap, clip
200  Vacumatic Senior Maxima pen with chrome trim
214  Sections and blind caps, for various Lady Challengers and Lady Sac Duofolds
215  Sections, feeds, and blind caps, for various Jr. Challengers and Jr. Sac Duofolds
220  Vac Deb, Sub-Deb, GF trim, Imperial Vac Deb, Lady & Jr. Sacless Duofold, feed, section, cap
221  Vacumatic Debutante, or Sub-Debutante pens, GF trim [or 421 ?]
222  Vacumatic Debutante & Sub-Deb pen with chrome trim, Lustraloy cap, GF clip
223  Sub-Debutante pens, chrome trim
224  Junior Vacumatic, Junior Sacless Duofold, section, feed & tube assembly
235  Lady Royal Challenger pen, GF trim
236  Lady Royal Challenger pen, chrome trim
264  Lady Challenger pen, GF trim, Lady Sac Duofold, blind cap
265  Junior Challenger pen, GF trim, Junior Sac Duofold, barrel, blind cap
268  Lady Sac Duofold pen, GF trim
270  Junior Sac Duofold pen, GF trim
272  Lady Sac Duofold pen, chrome trim
273  Junior Sac Duofold pen, chrome trim
274  Junior Royal Challenger pen, chrome trim
276  Junior Royal Challenger pen, GF trim
292  Junior Challenger pen, chrome trim
293  Lady Challenger pen, chrome trim
295  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Signet Type, cap, barrel, nib, feed, collector, shroud
299  Parker 51 Vac-Fil optional Lustraloy cap and clip
302  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, optional Signet GF cap and clip
303  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, optional ? GF cap and clip
305  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen & pencil, Heirloom yellow gold cap, clip, blind cap band, pencil point
309  Junior Sac Duofold, section
316  Vacumatic, Vac-Fil Type 51 barrels, Sacless Duofold, extended-type filler, Lustraloy cap, clip
317  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, optional ? GF cap and clip
318  Parker 51 Vac-Fil optional lined green gold cap, clip, and pencil point
324  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Lustraloy cap with GF clip
326  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pens and pencils, Lustraloy cap and clip
327  Parker 51 Vac-Fil Standard and Demi pens and pencils, Lustraloy clip
328  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pens and pencils, Regular GF cap and clip
330  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Signet, Insignia, GF cap and clip, long arrow
331  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Heritage, GF cap and clip, long arrow
333  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, with Regular lined GF cap
334  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, optional GF cap, groups of engraved lines
335  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Signet GF cap
336  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Heritage yellow and green gold cap
337  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Heirloom yellow and green gold cap
341  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Lustraloy cap with Lustraloy clip
343  Parker 51, Parker 51 Special inner cap, and VS barrel, blind cap, section, feed, etc.
347  Parker VS pen and pencil, Lustraloy cap and clip
348  Parker VS pen and pencil, Regular GF cap and clip
365  Parker 51 Vac Type, Vac-Fil desk pen barrel, and barrel taper, or “Magic Wand”
370  Imperial Vacumatic Major pen and pencil, GF cap and trim
384  Parker 51 Vac-Fil Lustraloy standard size
388  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pencil, Heirloom, yellow gold cap, clip
399  Junior Vacumatic pen and pencil, extended-type filler, chrome trim
400  Imperial Vac Debutante, 41, 51, 51 Special, VS, and 61, clip bushing, jewel screw
404  Vacumatic Sub-Debutante pens, extended-type filler, GF trim
405  Parker 51 pencils, Lustraloy clip
409  Sub-Debutante pens, extended-type filler, chrome trim
410  Televisor, Junior Vacumatic, Junior Sacless Duofold, extended-type filler, GF trim, cap, feed
411  Vacumatic Junior pen
421  Vacumatic Debutante GF clip [or 221 ?]
427  Eversharp “10,000” convertible pen, Octanium nib, feed, shell assembly, barrel, cap, filler
433  Imperial Vacumatic Debutante pen and pencil, LL pencil, GF cap and trim
435  Parker 51 pencil, continuous feed, rotary mechanism assembly
440  Lady Sacless Duofold pen and pencil, extended-type filler, GF trim
442  Junior Sacless Duofold pen and pencil, extended-type filler, GF trim
444  Lady Sacless Duofold pen and pencil, extended-type filler, GF trim
446  Junior Sacless Duofold pen and pencil, GF cap and clip
448  Major Sacless Duofold pencil, GF trim
449  Debutante Sacless Duofold pencil, GF trim
454  Junior Sac Duofold pen, GF trim
474  Parker 51 Vac-Fil pen and pencil, green gold cap and clip, blind cap band
480  Vacumatic Senior Maxima pencil, GF trim
481  Vacumatic Senior Maxima pencil, chrome trim
486  Vacumatic Debutante pencil, GF trim
487  Vacumatic Debutante pencil, chrome trim, Senior Maxima & Major pencils chrome point
490  Vacumatic Major pencil barrel
492  Vacumatic Sub-Deb pencil, GF trim
493  Vacumatic Sub-Deb pencil, chrome trim, Parker 61 pencil, bright Lustraloy cap, GF band
512  Lady Sac Duofold pen, GF trim, various Lady Challengers, feed
513  Junior Sac Duofold pen, GF trim, various Jr. Challengers, feed
515  Vacumatic Junior pencil, GF trim
516  Vacumatic Junior pencil, chrome trim
517  Vacumatic Major pencil, GF trim
518  Vacumatic Major pencil, chrome trim
560  Parkette pen, barrel, clutch ring, Lustraloy cap
562  Parkette Aero-metric filler
566  Parker 51 Demi, Vac Type, Vac-Fil pen and pencil, barrel
567  Parker 51 Demi Vac-Fil pen and pencil, regular GF cap and clip
568  Parker 51 Demi Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Satin Lustraloy cap and clip
570  Parker 51 pen and pencil, LL pencil, Signet, Insignia, GF, line-engraved caps, GF barrels
571  Parker 51 pen and pencil, LL pencil, Flighter, barrels, Satin Lustraloy cap with GF band
572  Parker 51 pen and pencil, LL pencil, Presidential barrels, 14K gold, non-engraved caps
573  Parker 21 pen and pencil, LL pencil, chrome plated clip, for 575
574  Parker 21 Deluxe, pen and pencil, Bright Lustraloy cap
575  Parker 21 Special, pen and pencil, LL pencil, Satin Lustraloy cap
576  Parker 21 Custom, pen and pencil, GF cap
582  Parker 51 pen and continuous feed pencil, GF standard clip
583  Parker 51 Standard and Demi, GF clip
586  Parker 51 Aero-metric pen, filling unit, clutch pencil mechanism, LL, barrels, various caps
587  Parker 51 pen and pencil, GF standard size cap, line-engraved
589  Parker 51 pen and pencil, Heritage, 14K gold, or GF caps
590  Parker 51 pen and pencil, Heirloom, 14K gold cap
591   Parker 51 Standard Type, Aero-metric desk pen barrel taper
596  Parker 51 Demi, 41, Aero-metric filling unit, pen and pencil, LL, Satin Lustraloy, chrome clip
597  Parker 51 Demi pen and pencil, GF line-engraved cap
599  Parker 51 Demi Vac-Fil pen and pencil, Heritage, GF cap and clip
600  Parker 51 Demi, pen and pencil, Heirloom, 14K gold cap, clip
601  Parker Super 21, 41, and 51 pens and rotary pencils, Demi size, Lustraloy cap, chrome clip
602  Cap-actuated Jotter ballpoint, retracting spring
607  Parker 21 Octanium open nib for 615 assembly, Parker 21 and 51 rotary pencil barrels
609  Parker 21, 41, Deb 51, pen & pencil, Aero-metric filler, LL pencil, rotary pencil mechanism
610  Parker 21 desk pen barrel taper
611  Parker 21 pencil Custom and Deluxe chrome plated cap screws
612  Parker 21 pen and pencil, standard, Satin Lustraloy caps without clips
615  Parker 21 Model 615, Parkette, sac assembly, inner cap, feed-and-shell assembly for 607
620  Button-actuated T-Ball Regular Jotter, & “V. I. P.” ballpoint, retracting spring, lined barrel
621  Parker 21 Custom Jotter ballpoint, Jotter Desk Pen, metal tip for plastic barrel
622  Parker 21 Jotter ballpoint, Jotter Desk Pen, Lustraloy cap
623  Parker 51 Deluxe Jotter ballpoint, Satin Lustraloy cap, barrel
624  Parker 51 Custom ballpoint, GF line-engraved cap
625  Parker 51 Demi, Vac Type, pen and pencil, Signet, Insignia, line-engraved cap
626  Parker 51 Special, Super 21, 41, Aero-metric, Octanium nib, rotary pencils, LL, Lustraloy cap
630  Parker 51 desk pen barrel, 51 Aero-metric, 51 Special
632  Parker 21 Standard Jotter ballpoint, Lustraloy cap
633  Parker LL pencil, 41, Regular, Demi 51 Standard, Deluxe, & Custom, barrel, barrel point, cap
635  Parker 51 Standard Jotter ballpoint, GF cap
636  Parker LL pencil, Deluxe & Custom, barrel point, cap
638  Parker LL pencil, Demi 51 Standard, Deluxe, & Custom, barrel & barrel point
639  Parker LL pencil, 21 Special, 51 Standard, 41, barrel & barrel point
641  Parker LL pencil, Demi 51 Deluxe, cap
645  Parker LL pencil, Special, cap
646  Parker LL pencil, Regular 51 Custom, GF cap
647  Parker LL pencil, Demi 51 Custom, GF cap
648  Parker LL pencil, Regular & Demi 51 Signet, barrel & barrel point
649  Parker LL pencil, Regular 51 Presidential, barrel
650  Parker LL pencil, Demi 51 Signet
651  Parker LL pencil, Regular 51 Flighter, barrel & barrel point
653  Parker 61 pen & pencil, chrome clips, cap clutch, feed, collector, ink cell, inner cap, 14K nib
659  Parker 61 Deluxe with Satin Lustraloy cap with GF band, shell with GF arrow
663  Parker 61 pencil, Lustraloy cap, GF clip, plastic barrels
664  Parker 61 pencil, Heritage with yellow GF & silver filled rainbow cap
665  Parker 61 pencil, Heirloom with pink & green gold rainbow cap
666  Parker 41, 45, 51, 51 Special, 61, International, rotary pencil mechanism, plastic barrel
668  Jotter Desk Pen, taper not drilled for chain
669  Parker 61 rotary pencil, Classic Satin Lustraloy cap without clip
671  Parker Jotter ballpoint, LL pencil, Lustraloy cap
673  Parker 41 and Super 21 pens Lustraloy caps, and Model 50 desk pen filler unit
674  Parker LL Desk Pencil, taper not drilled for chain
679  Parker 61 pen, Heritage with yellow GF & silver filled rainbow cap
680  Parker 61 pen, Heirloom with pink & green gold rainbow cap
684  Parker 51 desk pen, Model 50, bushing and barrel assembly
685  Jotter Desk Pen, taper drilled for chain
686  Parker LL Desk Pencil, taper drilled for chain
687  Parker 61 pen, Legacy with nickel and silver filled rainbow cap without clip
692  Parker 61 pen and pencil, Standard, Brite Lustraloy cap, GF band, shell with nickel arrow
693  Parker 41, 51, 61 continuous feed pencil points
695  Parker 61 rotary pencil, Heritage with yellow GF & silver filled rainbow cap
697  Parker 61 rotary pencil, Heirloom with pink & green gold rainbow cap
698  Parker 61 pen, Legacy with nickel and silver filled rainbow cap
699  Parker 41 pencil, Satin Lustraloy Demi size cap, chrome electroplated clip
701  Parker 51 pen and rotary pencil, Special with Lustraloy cap, chrome plated clip
702  Parker 51 pen and rotary pencil, standard Satin Lustraloy cap with GF band with chrome clip
703  Parker 51 pen and rotary pencil, GF standard cap, line-engraved
704  Parker 61 rotary pencil, Legacy with nickel and silver filled rainbow cap
705  Parker T-Ball Deluxe Jotter, and Super 21 Jotter ballpoint, Lustraloy cap and plastic barrel
712  Parker 51, International, & “V. I. P.”, ballpoint, Insignia, GF line-engraved cap
713  Parker 41 and Super 21 pen and pencils, Satin Lustraloy cap & chrome plated clips, fillers
717  Button-actuated T-Ball Jotter ballpoint, plastic barrel
718  All-metal cap-actuated Jotter, barrel assembly
721  Parker 41 Debutante, white enameled caps
723  Parker 61 pen and rotary pencil, Classic with Satin Lustraloy cap
725  Parker 21, Super 21, and 51 Special continuous feed pencil mechanism and point, for 607
728  Parker 61 and International pen and rotary pencil, Presidential with 14K gold trim
729  Parker 61 pen and rotary pencil, Presidential and Insignia, black plastic shell with GF arrow
730  Parker 61 pen and rotary pencil, Insignia, and Custom, GF cap
731  Minim Jotter ballpoint, GF cap and plastic barrel
733  Minim Jotter ballpoint, 14K gold Insignia, GF non-engraved cap, barrel
734  T-Ball Jotter ballpoint, Lustraloy barrel
737  Minim Jotter ballpoint, 14K gold Presidential, non-engraved cap, barrel
746  Parker 45 pencil point, gold-plated, and Parker 45 desk pencil mechanism, plastic taper
747  Princess Jotter ballpoint, wavy-line engraved design other color lacquer cap, smooth barrel
748  Princess Ivy Jotter ballpoint, engraved design on black or white lacquered cap
749  Princess Jotter ballpoint, wavy-line engraved design on black lacquer cap
750  Princess Jotter ballpoint, line-and-drop engraved design other color lacquered cap & barrel
751  Princess Ivy Jotter ballpoint, bright-finish gold electroplated barrel
752  Princess Jotter ballpoint, line-and-drop engraved design on black lacquered cap & barrel
753  Debutante Jotter ballpoint, fish-scale engraved on colored lacquered cap, plastic barrel
754  “V. I. P.” pencil & ballpoint, Bright Lustraloy cap
755  “V. I. P.” pencil & ballpoint, GF cap, line-engraved, plastic barrel
756  “V. I. P.” pencil & ballpoint, Insignia GF cap, line-engraved
760  Parker 45 pen, Standard, Flighter Lustraloy caps, chrome clips, 14K nib units, mech. pencil
761  Parker 45 Flighter Lustraloy barrel with black plastic tip
770  Parker 61, Parker 45, International, “V. I. P.” pencil, ballpen, Flighter barrel, gold-plate clip
772  International and “V. I. P.” pencils & ballpoints, Presidential cap 14K non-engraved
779  Parker 61 pen and pencil, Jet Flighter, Lustraloy cap, black plastic shell with nickel arrow
780  Parker T-Ball Jotter ballpoint, Lustraloy cap
790  International and “V. I. P.” pencils & ballpoints, GF standard size cap, line-engraved
807  Parker 45 pencil, Insignia gold electroplated barrel
809  Eversharp Super E pens with Parker 45 steel nib units, pencil mechanism
811  Parker 45 pen and pencil, Insignia, and Custom, with gold-plated caps, clips, clip screws
812  Parker 45 Insignia gold-plated barrel with black plastic tip
840  Parker 19 with Parker 45 gold-plated nib units



George Kovalenko.



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June 05, 2015

Parker Model Numbers, 1


, the first series.

[Posted on L&P on July 30, 2005, Oct 19, 22, 2006, Sept 29, Nov 12, 2007, and revised in 2015.]
        Over on the Zoss List on Apr 19, 2002, Kurt Matthews quoted a few lines from an article about the Parker Pen Co. titled “The Policy That Makes Every Year Our Best”, in System, the Magazine of Business, ca. 1924-25.  The article states, “The success of the Duofolds, incidentally, made it practical for us to simplify our line, and this was one of the best things it did.  Like many manufacturers, we had added style after style, rather lightly, for service and for other reasons, until we had a great many styles.  We were making more than 400 styles of pens four years ago [1921?]”.  And then Kurt asked, “Does anyone have a complete collection of all the styles of pens that Parker ever made?”.  I Don’t know about a complete collection, which would be quite an impressive gathering, but how about a complete list of all the styles?  That got me thinking, and I talked to Michael Fultz about such a list, but he said that preparing it would be a daunting task because of all the various versions and styles of each model number. 
        The first list of this type was an accidental, unintentional, and woefully incomplete one.  It was actually a collector-rated list of the 40 rarest Parker pens, and it made its first appearance in an article in Pen World, vol. 4, no. 6, Jul-Aug 1991, p.31.  It was then corrected and repeated in vol. 5, no. 1, Sept-Oct 1991, p.31.  It was because of those articles that those issues of the magazine sold out quickly, in fact, they sold out so fast that the latter one, especially, had became quite a “rare” collector’s item in its own right because it was so sought after by Parker pen collectors.
        In 2005, when Ron Dutcher asked about his Parker #62 pen on L&P, I made the mistake of citing the list of Parker model numbers in Ed Pasahow’s book Parker Pen Encyclopedia (1997) as a reference, and David Nishimura wrote, “For shame!”.  I know, I know, but it was the only source out there at the time that listed most of the Parker numbers in one location.  My own personal copy of the book is full of marginalia penciled in to correct many of the errors and omissions in the list.  The only useful portion of that book is this “Numbering of Models” section starting on page 20, and let me also say, it is the only part of the book that I use.  I agree that the rest of the book is just too problematic, so it is best to ignore the rest of it.
        In the past I had tried to tease and cajole Michael Fultz into writing up a corrected list of all the Parker numbers, perhaps as an article for The Pennant, or a fountain pen website.  I even made an open plea on the Zoss List a few years ago, but Fultz didn’t take the bait.  It would have made a great reference piece, wherever it might have been published.  So barring that, a reference to the Pasahow number list, not the rest of the book, had to suffice, in spite of the errors, and omissions, and shame, and all.  I mention it again only at the risk of incurring the wrath of David.  But credit where credit is due.  It was one of the first attempts, though incomplete, at a list of Parker model numbers.
        John Danza posted a price list of parts that came in a pen box with the original pen, ca. 1910.  The list has quite a few of the model numbers for the pens, but best of all, the price list helps to explain why they didn’t have a #2 pen model.  The number was used for a product called the
“Parker Travelers’ Fountain Pen Ink”.  Until I found this item, I listed #2 as “number not used”.  The Parker catalogues from the later 192os do not show either any model numbers, or any replacement part numbers, but John posted some pages from the 1921 Parker catalogue, which had a few more model numbers above 64.  From those late numbers, I realized that the filling system, size of nib, and type of cap didn’t matter to the number, so it wasn’t just a model number, but also a style, and finish number.  Later on, the model numbers were even used for the matching mechanical pencils.  John wrote that there were some Lucky Curves around with a “22” on their blind cap, and not marked Jack Knife Safety, so they were probably from the early 1920s after the Jack Knife Safety designation went away.  A chased one also exists, so it should more rightly be called a #22½.  John also wrote that he picked up a 22½ that had only “2½” on the blind cap, but unlike others he’d seen with the missing first digit, this one had a Jack Knife Safety imprinted cap.
        But what I really wanted to find were the Duofold and Vacumatic model or style numbers, if there were any to be found, because I didn’t know whether the first numbering system lasted that long.  So the 37 and 38 are the sterling and gold-filled “Snakes”, and the 47 is the so-called “Pregnant Parker”, and the 52 and 53 are the “Swastikas”, and the 57, 58, and 59 are the “Awanyu Aztecs”, and the 100 is the double-ended “Bookkeeper’s Pen”.  But maybe the Duofolds could have been somewhere in the mid-100s, and maybe the Vacs could have started somewhere in the late-100s or early 200s.  I still need quite a few more numbers to complete the list.  Fultz posted on Zoss that such numbers as 2, 7, 13, 17, 19, 22, and 29 had not been used for pens.  I have most of the first 100 Parker model numbers, but I’m still missing numbers 68, 69, 70, 76, 77, 78, 79, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, and 97, and there are also a few named models that don’t have numbers.  I’m also missing any numbers above 100.  So I thought to myself, let’s see whether I can put together a complete list of numbers from 1 to 100.  Tony Fischier also has a list of “Parker models before the Duofold” on his website
“Parker Penography”, but dare I say, his list came after mine.  He asked for permission to use the info from my post on L&P, with credits and links, of course, and he received it.
        What is really enticing is the possibility that the early numbering system used by Parker from the beginning of its history may have been continued by the later repair part numbering system.  When I first started the list, these two numbering systems were one continuous list, but with a very disjointed middle section.  Since then I have divided this earlier version of the list into two parts, the First Series and the Second Series.  The First Series could also be called “The Lucky Curve Numbers”.  This is just an interim list, and I have made changes to it many times, so remember that it might already be outdated and full of mistakes.  Here is the first series.


The First Series

L after number = long
S after number = short
ED = eyedropper filled

½ after number = chased
GF = gold-filled, or rolled gold
SF after number = self-filler, or rather button filler

Baby = super-short-sized versions of certain models
JK after number = turban-top type Jack Knife Safety cap
JKS after number = Jack Knife Safety cap with washer clip

#? first pen had no number, ED, BHR, BMHR, plain or hexagonal barrels, overfeed, straight cap
 1  ED, #1 nib, BHR or BMHR, plain barrel and straight or cone caps, over or underfeed
[2 number not used for a pen, later used instead for the “Parker Travelers’ Fountain Pen Ink”]
 3  ED, #3 nib, BHR, BCHR, BMHR, plain or cable twist barrel, tapered straight or cone cap, also
     ladies size with #1 nib
 4  ED, #3 nib, BHR, chased barrel with two GF bands, tapered straight or cone caps
 5  ED, #3 nib, BHR, BCHR, BMHR, spiral twist or hexagonal barrel, tapered smooth straight cap
 6  ED, #3 nib, BCHR barrel, 2 chased GF bands, tapered straight or cone caps, #1 nib ladies size
[7  number not used?]

[7  later used for a SF, #7 or 7x nib, BCHR, or BLHR, washer-clip cap, also marked #7x, and #37]
 8  ED, #3 nib, BHR, BMHR, facetted hexagonal barrel, tapered straight cap
 9  ED, #3 nib, BCHR, chased barrel with two chased GF bands, straight cap
10  ED, #3 nib, BHR, BMHR, cable-twist barrel, straight cap
11  ED, #3 nib, BHR, silver or gold cable twist overlay, or engraved black or yellow aluminum
     overlay on barrel, tapered straight cap
12  ED, #3 nib, BHR, mother of pearl or abalone on barrel, two GF bands, tapered straight cap
[13 number not used?]
14  ED, & SF, #3 nib, BHR, RHR, sterling silver barrel & cap filigree, cone cap, #140 with #4 nib
15  ED, BHR, RHR, mother of pearl or abalone and two GF bands on barrel, filigree-covered cone
     cap with round or flat ends
16  ED, & SF, BHR, RHR, same as #14, but with 18K gold-plate overlay, #160 with #4 nib
[17 number not used?]
“Special”, no number, cheap pen, ED, BHR, straight cone cap
“New Special”, no number, cheap pen, ED, BHR, cone cap
“Silver Dollar”, or “Palmer Pen”, no number, cheap pen, ED, BHR, straight cap
“College Pen”, no number, cheap pen, ED, BHR, rounded or squared cap end cap
“The Wizard”, no number, cheap pen, ED, BHR
Ink pencil, no number, stylograph, ED, BHR, RHR
18  ED, #1 nib, BHR, BMHR, RHR, also mottled green, straight, or cone cap, plain or ribbed grip
18½ ED, BCHR, chased version of #18
[19 number not used?]
20, 22-28 series, bandless BHR, BMHR, RHR, mottled green, Ivorine, transl. Bakelite barrel
20½, 22½-28½ series, BCHR, chased versions of #20, 23-28 series
20, 22-25 series, with single plain or engraved cap band, or double cap-lip and cap-top bands
020, 023-025 series, “Jointless” eyedropper filler version of #20, 23-25 series

18 F F, 20 F F, 23 F F series, “Finger Filler”, sleeve filler version of #18, 20, 23 pens
“Trench Pen”, BHR, BMHR, RHR, ink tablets under blind cap, #20, 23, 24, 24½, 25, & “Giant”
“Shorthand”, ED, no number, super-long-sized versions of #18, 020, 023, and 024, cone caps
“Emblem”, ED, or SF, cone cap, #20-26, with fraternity or service club emblem on cap
20  ED, or SF, #2 nib, straight, cone, JKS, or SF with washer-clip cap
“Nurse Pen”, SF, #20, JKS with washer-clip, BHR cap & barrel, RHR blind cap & cap top
21  ED, or SF, same as #20, but with two chased GF barrel bands
22  SF, #2 nib, number possibly used in the 1920s, also called a #2, and 2½ and 22½
23  ED, or SF, #3 nib, with straight, cone, JKS, or SF with washer-clip cap
“Hexagon”, same as #20 and 23, but with facetted, hexagonal barrel
24  ED, or SF, #4 nib, with straight, cone, JKS, or SF with washer-clip cap
“Bull Dog Special”, ED, BHR, BMHR, same as #24 and 024 but shorter barrel, vest pocket pen
“Falcon”, same as #24, but with a falcon-styled nib
25  ED, or SF, #5 nib, with straight, cone, JKS, or SF with washer-clip cap
26  ED, or SF, #6 nib, with straight, cone, JKS, or SF with washer-clip cap
“Physician”, same as #24, 024, 25, 025, 26, and 026, but with a thermometer under a blind cap
27  ED, Jack Knife Safety with a scarce #7 nib and bakelite barrel, a few examples found
[27 SF, black plastic pen with gold-plated washer clip, large pen with #2 nib]
28  ED, or SF, #8 nib, with straight, cone, JKS, or SF with washer-clip cap
[29 number not used, but could it be the “Giant” with a #12 nib?, maybe not]
“Giant”, no number, ED, #12 nib, RHR, BHR, cone cap, or Jack Knife Safety cap & washer clip
30  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full GF diamond-and-snail pattern overlay, straight cap
31  ED, or SF, #5 nib, BHR, RHR, full sterling silver filigree, cone cap
32  ED, or SF, #3 nib, BHR, RHR, full sterling silver floral filigree, cone cap
33  ED, #3 nib, BHR, RHR, GF filigree on barrel and cap tip, cone cap
34  ED, BHR, same as #34, but in sterling silver filigree
35  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full 18K gold plated floral pansy overlay, straight cap, also ladies size
36  ED, BHR, same as #35, but in sterling silver overlay
37  ED, BHR, #3 nib, sterling silver “Snake” filigree, with green stones set in the eyes, cone cap
38  ED, BHR, same as #37 “Snake”, but in GF, both with round or flat cap end
39  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full 18K gold Forget-Me-Not overlay set with pearls or gems, straight cap
[39 also a black-plastic, SF pen, two gold-plated cap bands, washer clip, large pen with #2 nib]
40  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full 18K gold overlay, deep leaf and floral engraving, straight cap
41  ED, BHR, RHR, same as #31, but with GF filigree
42½ ED, #3 nib, BCHR, chased cap & barrel, engraved gold band on mid-barrel and cap top
43  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full 18K gold Forget-Me-Not floral overlay with dull finish, straight cap
44  ED, BHR, same as #43, but in sterling silver with dull finish
45  ED, or JKS, BHR, RHR, mother-of-pearl or abalone slabs, 2 GF barrel & cap top bands, pearl
     or turquoise cap-top cabochon
46  ED, #3 nib, BHR, GF snail filigree on cap, corrugated mother-of-pearl & 2 GF bands on barrel
47  ED, #3 nib, BHR, 18K gold floral overlay cap, “Pregnant” mother-of-pearl slabs
48  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full 18K GF plain overlay, straight cap
49  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full 18K GF lined and scrollwork overlay, straight cap
50  ED, #3 nib, BHR, GF band and mother-of-pearl or ivory cabochon on cone cap top
50½ ED, BCHR, chased version of #50
51  ED, #3 nib, BHR, swirled filigree name plate on barrel, cone cap
51½ ED, BCHR, chased version of #51
52  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full overlay “Swastika” design on hammered sterling silver ground, cone cap
53  ED, #3 nib, BHR, full GF overlay with different “Swastika” design, cone cap
54  ED, same as #39, but without pearls or gems
55  ED, same as #48, but in sterling silver overlay
56  ED, same as #49, but in sterling silver overlay
57  ED, #3 nib, BHR, half-covered “Awanyu Aztec”, sterling silver overlay on barrel and cap top
58  ED, BHR, same as #57, half-covered “Awanyu Aztec”, GF overlay on barrel and cap top
59  ED, #3 nib, BHR, fully-covered “Awanyu Aztec”, sterling silver overlay on entire pen
60  ED, BHR, same as #59, fully-covered “Awanyu Aztec”, GF overlay on entire pen
61  ED, or SF, #3 nib, BHR, cone cap, plain 18K gold full overlay covering barrel, section, and cap
62  ED, or SF, #3 nib, BHR, cone cap, floral GF full overlay covering barrel, section, and cap
63  ED, #3 nib, BHR, cone cap, plain GF full overlay with engraved wreath on barrel
64  ED, #3 nib, BHR, cone cap, checkered GF full overlay on barrel and cap, plain ends
“Snail”, no number, ED, full sterling silver overlay, #3 nib, straight cap
“Snail”, no number, ED, same as previous, but GF full overlay
“Giraffe”, no number, ED, full GF overlay, #3 nib, straight cap
“Ribbon”, no number, ED, full GF overlay, #3 nib, straight cap
65  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, BCHR, #2 nib, plain wide GF band on barrel, bandless
66  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, #2 nib, GF cap top and ring, bandless
67  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, #3 nib, GF cap top and ring, bandless
[68 number not used? Baby GF pen or pencil, plain or engine turned, with clip or ringtop]
[69 number not used?]
70  ED, JKS, #3 nib, telescoping barrel, GF overlay, various patterns, ringtop cap
71  ED, or SF, JKS, #2 nib, BHR, two gold or silver cap bands, ringtop, transparent barrel
72  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, BHR, plain GF wide cap band
72½ same as #72, but chased
73  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, BHR, plain GF wide cap and barrel bands
73½ same as #73, but chased
74  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, BHR, engraved GF barrel band, bandless
74½ same as #74, but chased
75  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, BHR, engraved GF cap band
76  ED, or SF, Jack Knife Safety, BHR, 18K gold cap band
76½ ED, BCHR, same as #76, but chased
[77-79 numbers not used?]
80  ED, BHR, same as #30, but full sterling or 18K gold diamond-and-snail overlay
81  SF, Jack Knife Safety, BCHR, chased wide GF band on barrel, bandless
82  SF, Jack Knife Safety, BCHR, chased wide GF band on barrel, bandless, decor. cap top
83  SF, Jack Knife Safety, BHR, plain GF blind cap, wide cap band, decorative cap top
83½ BCHR, same as #83, but chased
84  SF, Jack Knife Safety, BHR, plain GF blind cap, bandless, decorative cap top
84½ BCHR, same as #84, but chased
[85-89 numbers not used?]
90  SF, Jack Knife Safety, lined chasing ending in small paisleys GF full overlay, full length
91  SF, Jack Knife Safety, plain GF or triple silver-plate full overlay, full length
92  SF, Jack Knife Safety, large paisley engraved GF full overlay, full length
[93-94 numbers not used?]
95  SF, Jack Knife Safety, plain sterling silver full overlay, medium length
96  SF, Jack Knife Safety, paisley and diamond sterling silver full overlay, medium length
[97 number not used?]
98  SF, Jack Knife Safety, plain GF or triple silver-plate full overlay, medium length
99  SF, Jack Knife Safety, paisley and diamond GF full overlay, medium length
100 “Bookkeeper’s Special”, double ED, two #3 nibs, BHR+RHR, BHR+BMHR, cone caps



George Kovalenko.

 

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